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Wednesday, 14 June 2017

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Working Of CPU

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Working Of CPU
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Working Of CPU

Overview
The central processing unit (CPU) is the part of the computer that carries out software functions and instructions. Early CPUs were custom-designed for larger computers. Now, CPUs are mass produced and standard.
Companies design CPUs based on consumer needs. Some computer users require a powerful processor, and others need a processor that is low-voltage. Today, a variety of processors are available on the market, and computer users have the flexibility to choose from many products and configurations.

How It Works
All computer programs have functions, purposes, and goals. For example, spreadsheet software helps users store data and perform calculations. Other software allows users to compile documents, make slideshows, and play games. To perform these functions, programs have a series of instructions in the form of codes or numbers.

In order to translate instructions and run computer software, the CPU must perform four tasks. First, the CPU locates the set of instructions from the computer program. Then, the CPU decodes these instructions into their parts. With this task, the CPU interprets what is necessary for each operation. The different parts of the CPU are responsible for unique tasks. After decoding information, the CPU will execute the program's instructions. The different parts of the CPU work together so that the software can run. Finally, the CPU writes back the outcome of the execution into memory. Through a writeback, the CPU influences how the software should behave and perform in the future.
The processor speed refers to how many instructions the CPU performs per second. The two factors that influence this rate are the instructions per clock and clock rate, which is a calculation of the maximum time that an electrical signal moves through the parts of the CPU.

Multi-core processors combine at least two processors into one integrated circuit in order to improve speed and performance. In theory, a quad core processor is four times as powerful as a single core processor.

64-bit & 32-bit Processors
The expressions 64-bit and 32-bit refer to the how the CPU handles information. In general, a 64-bit processor is beneficial for large datasets and multitasking. Functions including digital video playback, scientific computing, and database are more streamlined with a 64-bit processor.
Although 64-bit technology has existed since for fifty years, the majority of consumer computers were bundled with 32-bit processors. Now, a majority of new computers are available with 64-bit processors. Today's 64-bit processors are bundled with the technology to run 32-bit software through emulation and 32-bit processor cores.

A disadvantage of 64-bit processors is that the same data requires more memory. As a result, 64-bit processors perform better with more computer memory.

Brands and Types:-

Intel Pentium
Pentium processors were manufactured by Intel throughout the '90s until 2006. In 2007, Intel reintroduced the Pentium trademark for lower end dual core processors. Now, the Pentium trade mark refers to Intel's line of low-end dual core processors. The Celeron processor was Intel's low-end counterpart to the Pentium during the '90s. Today, a variety of low-end computers are available with Celeron processors.

Intel Core:- Core processors are mid-range to high end computer processors. Intel first released these 32-bit processors in 2006 under the Core trademark. With the rising popularity of 64-bit processors, Intel re branded its Core brand with its 64-bit Core 2 processors. Intel's Core Solo processors have two cores like the Core Duos; however, the Core Solos have only one active core. Some of the disabled cores may have manufacturing defects (which do not affect the performance of the computer since the CPU requires only one core).

Core 2 Solo processors are low-voltage and ideal for mobile laptops. Core 2 Duo processors have two active cores and are more powerful than Core 2 Solo processors. In 2010, Intel released a new line of processors. The new Core i3, Core i5, and Core i7 processors correspond to entry level though high end CPUs. Intel's new processors come with Turbo Boost Technology, which allows the CPU to adapt to the user's immediate performance needs. The new Core processors enable long battery life through low-voltage and are available for ultra-thin laptops.

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD)
AMD produces the Athlon and Turion processors. Many laptops and desktops come with these processors which may be single core or dual core. Quad core and additional multi-core processors are also available. Traditionally, AMD processors have operated closely to Intel CPUs. In general, AMD processors are less expensive than their Intel counterparts.
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Item Reviewed: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Working Of CPU Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Rd Singh
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